Վահան Տերյան

Վահան Տերյանը ծնվել է Ախալքալաքի Գանձա գյուղում՝ հոգևորականի ընտանիքում։ 1897 թվականին Տերյանը մեկնում է Թիֆլիս, ուր սովորում էին այդ ժամանակ իր ավագ եղբայրները։ Եղբայրների մոտ ապագա բանաստեղծը սովորում է ռուսերեն ու պատրաստվում ընդունվելու Մոսկվայի Լազարյան ճեմարան։ 1899 թվականին Տերյանը ընդունվում է Լազարյան ճեմարան, ուր ծանոթանում է Ալեքսանդր Մյասնիկյանի, Պողոս Մակինցյանի, Ցոլակ Խանզադյանի և այլ՝ ապագայում հայտնի դարձած անձնավորությունների հետ։ Ավարտում է Լազարյան ճեմարանը 1906 թվականին, այնուհետև ընդունվում Մոսկվայի պետական համալսարան, որից կարճ ժամանակ հետո ձերբակալվում է հեղափոխական գործունեության համար ու նետվում Մոսկվայի Բուտիրկա բանտը։1908 թվականին Թիֆլիսում լույս է տեսնում Տերյանի ստեղծագործությունների «Մթնշաղի անուրջներ» ժողովածուն, որը շատ ջերմ է ընդունվում՝ թե՛ ընթերցողների, և թե՛ քննադատների կողմից։ 1915 թվականին «Մշակ» թերթում հրատարակվում է բանաստեղծի հայրենասիրական բանաստեղծությունների «Երկիր Նաիրի» շարքը։

Interesting facts about Wine

wine1. The custom of bumping glasses with a “cheers” greeting came from old Rome where they used this method to make sure no one is trying to poison the other (bumping glasses makes the drink spill from one cup to the other). This tradition started even earlier in ancient Greece – where the host was to drink the first cup of wine to show his guests he does not intend to poison them.

2. And if we mentioned Rome – In ancient Rome it was forbidden for women to drink wine. If a husband found his wife drinking wine he would be allowed, by law, to kill her.

3. An ancient civilization that did not like wine was Egypt. The old kings avoided wine from the belief that the red alcoholic beverage is actually the blood of men who tried to fight the gods and failed. This is why, according to the egyptians, what makes people act irrationally while drinking it (alcohol).

4. Do you like wine AND living extreme? If you visit Vietnam, ask your waiter a glass of cobra wine. This extreme beverage is rice-wine covered with snake blood that is killed on the spot. if you’d like you can add the snake’s heart to the mix as well.

5. During the prohibition period in the United States, grape juice concentrate manufacturers took advantage of the big drinking lust Americans had and put a great warning sticker on their product saying “After you mix the concentrate with water, please do not keep the mix in a barrel for 20 days – as it will turn into wine.”

6. The world champion of recognizing wine by smell was crowned in 2003. Richard Juhlin, a sport ed from sweden, was able to recognize 43 wines out of 50. For comparison – second place was only able to recognize 4 of them.

7. Although the temptation is great – try not to keep your wine in the kitchen. The heat there is too much and may damage the wine’s quality. the fridge is no place for a wine either since it is just too cold. Find a cool dark closet somewhere in the house where you can keep all your bottles, or just get a wine cellar.

8. If you own a collection of bottles – don’t keep them standing up – this can cause the cork to dry, shrink and oxygen\air might get in the bottle. always keep the bottles lying down (Unless its an artificial cork.)

9. A survey that was being held in Australia said that women that drink 2 cups of wine a day tend to enjoy sex more than women who don’t drink at all.

 

10. People who have wine phobia are called Oenophobia – and they really do exist. It might sound funny, but this phobia – just like others, cause them a lot of suffering, especially if they go out to restaurants a lot.

 

Interesting facts about coffee

You don’t need coffee when you first wake up.

Source: en.ilovecoffee.jp

Your body naturally produces a hormone called cortisol that helps you feel alert and awake. That is released according to your circadian rhythm, dictated by the time of the day. So, if you have a habit of drinking coffee when you first wake up, you may want to wait a bit longer so that your caffeine isn’t wasted during a time when cortisol is at its highest.

Coffee isn’t actually that dehydrating.

Source: abeautifulmess.com

Great news! Caffeine was once thought to be a significant diuretic, but that’s actually not true. Unless it’s consumed in large quantities (more than 500 to 600 mg a day, or two coffees) there aren’t such negative effects. In fact, studies have shown that urine output isn’t significantly changed when a person drinks a caffeinated beverage, rather than something non-caffeinated like water. So, as long as you enjoy your coffee in moderation, there’s not much to worry about.

Like most great discoveries, coffee’s magical powers were first realized through the majesty of crazy goats.

Source: cheezburger.com

According to legend, Ethiopian shepherds first realized the profound caffeinating effects of coffee when they noticed their goats started “dancing” after eating coffee berries.

Coffee can help you live a longer and healthier life.

Source: policymic.com

Coffee contains lots of antioxidants (it’s the biggest source of antioxidants in an average Western diet!) that help the body fight chemicals called “free radicals.” As a result, coffee drinkers are at a lower risk of diseases such as Parkinson’s Disease, Type II Diabetes, and Heart Disease. Here’s the thing, though: coffee drinkers are also more likely to have unhealthy habits such as smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol heavily, and eating red meat, so the study shown above has been adjusted to show what could happen if these other factors weren’t in effect.

Coffee contains important nutrients you need to survive.

Source: italiangoodnews.com

A single cup of coffee contains 11% of the daily recommended amount of Riboflavin (vitamin B2), 6% of Pantothenic Acid (vitamin B5), 3% of Manganese and Potassium, and 2% of Niacin and Magnesium.

Drinking coffee can help you burn fat.

Source: kimolsonphoto.com

Studies have shown that drinking caffeine can increase your metabolism 3 to 11%. It’s one of the few chemicals that can actually help with fat burning, so might as well drink up!

All of the coffee grown on the planet is from an area called “The Coffee Belt.”

Source: cornerofthecafe.com

The Coffee Belt contains all of the regions that have the conditions needed for coffee growing. Since the plants clearly require lots of sunshine and warmth, it’s pretty easy to say that this belt makes a good outline for the best tropical vacations, too!

Iced coffee is more expensive because it uses more resources.

Source: en.wikipedia.org

From plastic cups to napkins to double brewing (re-brewing coffee a second time to make it stronger), the resources needed for iced coffee are more numerous (and expensive!) than hot coffee is. All of that adds up, and it causes establishments to charge more for their iced drinks than their hot-beverage counterparts.

Interesting facts about Gum

Fact #1

During WWII, U.S. military personnel spread the popularity of chewing gum by trading it and giving it as gifts to people in Europe, Africa, Asia and around the world.

Fact #2

Cinnamon, spearmint, and peppermint are among the most popular flavors of chewing gum today.

Fact #3

Chewing gum while cutting onions can help a person from producing tears.

Fact #4

The color of the first successful bubble gum was pink because it was the only color the inventor had left. The color “stuck,” and today bubble gum is still predominantly pink.

Fact #5

The largest bubble ever blown was 23 inches in diameter. The record was set July 19, 1994 by Susan Montgomery Williams of Fresno, CA.

Fact #6

Blibber-Blubber, a failed attempt at bubble gum, was invented in 1906 but was deemed too sticky to sell. In the pre-Glee Gum days, the ancient Mayans chewed plain chicle. That’s the same sap from the sapodilla tree to now give Glee Gum such great chew.

Fact #7

The whole “seven years” thing is a myth. A piece of swallowed gum won’t clog up your intestines, but it will be with you for a few days. Gum base can’t be digested, so it will pass through your system in one piece. That said, we still don’t recommend that you swallow it!

Fact #8

Singapore has tried to completely forbid gum, with heavy fines of over $6,000 for possession or use without a prescription.

Fact #9

Studies have shown that chewing gum actually helps people concentrate and may improve long-term and working memory. Chewing gum has also been shown to reduce muscle tension and increase alertness.

Fact #10

Turkey is the country with the most gum companies; the United States is second.

Fact #11

Chewing gum burns around 11 calories per hour.

Fact #12

In 2006 the world-wide chewing gum industry was estimated to be worth $19 billion in sales, or 1.3 million metric tons of gum.

Fact #13

Chewing gum on an airplane will keep your ears from popping. Chewing gum makes your salivary glands produce 250% more saliva than normally, so you swallow more. This helps balance the pressure in your head.

Fact #14

In the U.S. alone, the total amount of chewing gum sold in one year would make a stick 3.5 million miles (5.6 million km) long. That’s long enough to reach the moon and back seven times, or to circle the earth’s equator 150 times.

Fact #15

Chewing gum after meals may help prevent heartburn.

Fact #16

The largest piece of bubble gum ever was the size and weight of 10,000 regular pieces and was presented to baseball player Willie Mays by the Topps Chewing Gum Company in June 1974.

Fact #17

Back in the 1920’s, prohibition increased gum sales because people needed to mask the alcohol on their breath. When prohibition was enacted, Adam’s Clove gum hit the market with the slogan: “It takes your breath away!”

Fact #18

Chewing gum was illegal in all of Eastern Europe until Czechoslovakia began manufacturing it in 1957. Poland and East Germany quickly followed suit, but it was not until 1976 that the Soviet Union lifted its ban on gum.

Fact #19

Humans are the only animals on earth that chew gum. If you give a monkey a piece he will chew it for a couple of minutes, then he will take it out and stick it to his hair.

Домашнее задание по Русскому языку

Март

Упражнение 1: переделать прямую речь в косвенную:

  1. Антон спросил меня: Ты сфотографируешься с нами?”

Антон спросил меня, сфотографируюсь ли я с ними.

  1. Анна спросила Нину: “ У тебя есть компьютер? У тебя есть принтер? Ты пользуешься Интернетом”

Анна спросила Нину, есть ли у нее компьютер, есть ли у нее принтер, пользуется ли она интернетом.

  1. Я спросил Нину: “Ты интересуешься современной музыкой?”

Я спросил Нину, интересуется ли она современной музыкой.

  1. Молодой человек спросил: “ Вы знаете, где здесь остановка автобуса?”

Молодой человек спросил, знаю ли я где здесь остановка автобуса.

  1. Старый человек спросил меня:” Вы поможете мне перейти улицу?”.

Старый человек спросил меня, помогу ли я ему перейти улицу.

  1. Сергей спросил меня:” Ты знаешь, чем увлекается Вера?”

Сергей спросил меня, знаю ли я чем увлекаеться Вера.

Упражнение 2.

Перепишите, расставляя знаки препинания.

  1. Мы завтра пойдём в музей: Сказал преподаватель истории.
  2. Когда и где будет сбор: Спросили ученики.
  3. Не опаздывать: Крикнул дежурный.
  4. Экскурсовод предупредил: Не забудьте записать, что вы видели в музее Завтра вы будете писать сочинение об этой экскурсии
  5. Ребята спросили: А можно будет пользоваться записями и путеводителем.

 

Задание 2: Замени прямую речь косвенной.

  1. «Живей, живей, ребята, подсобляйте!» — крикнул Николай Петрович.

Николай Петрович крикнул ребятам-живей живей подсобляйте.

  1. «Да, я знаю вас, Базаров», — подтвердила она.

Она подтвердила что знает Базарова.

  1. «Меня зовут Аркадий Николаевич Кирсанов, —  проговорил Аркадий, — и я ничем не занимаюсь».

Аркадий представился и сказал что ничем не занимался.

  1. «Хлопот у меня с мужиками в нынешнем году», — продолжал говорить Николай Петрович.

Николай Петрович сказал что у него хлопоты с мужиками в нынешнем году.

  1. Аркадий с прежней улыбкой сказал Базарову: «Евгений, возьми меня с собой!»

Аркадий с прежней улыбкой сказал Базарову, чтобы Евгений взял его с собой.

  1. Я спросил его: «Да ты умеешь ли плавать?»

Я спросил его, умеет ли он плавать.

  1. Илюша крикнул ему вслед: «Смотри, не упади в реку!»

Илюша крикнул ему вслед, чтобы он не упал в реку.

ЗАДАНИЕ 3. Проведите обратную замену, преобразовав предложения с косвенной речью в предложения с прямой речью.

  1. Кирилл Петрович спросил у Маши, где она была.

Кирилл Петрович спросил у Маши: <<Где ты была>>

  1. Я заметил, глядя на светлое небо, что погода славная будет.
  2. Отец крикнул Феде. Чтобы он держал правее.

Отец крикнул Феде: <<Держи правее>>.

  1. Дубровский спросил, все ли здесь  и не осталось ли кого в доме.
  2. Сергей спросил тихо, почему она ушла.

ЗАДАНИЕ 4. Исправь ошибки, связанные с употреблением прямой и косвенной речи. Объясни, чем вызваны эти ошибки.

  1. Он говорил, что страшный случай со мной приключился, что я в дороге совсем издержался.
  2. Чичиков хотел узнать у Коробочки, что куда они заехали.
  3. Савельич спросил у Гринёва, узнал он атамана.
  4. Когда мать спросила у сына, зачем он читает запрещённые книги, Павел ответил, что хочу всё знать.
  5. В детстве мама всегда спрашивала: «Кем я хочу быть?» И я всегда отвечала: «Учительницей».

English Homework March

March 6-24

Unit 2

a)

1.I got to post office just before it closed and send the letter.

2.We invited Stephanie to the party, but she didn’t come.

3.Jack lost his job because he made too many mistakes.

4.Everyone knew that it was Bill’s fault, but nobody said anything.

5.Karen took the keys from the kitchen table and ran out.

6.I was bored, so Mum gave me some money to go shopping.

7.Do you remember the time we went to India on holiday.

8.It started raining, but luckily I had an umbrella in my bag.

b)

1.I don’t want to go and see the film because I saw it last week.

2.I don’t need football because I’ve bought it yesterday.

3.I know a lot about Paris because I was there two years ago.

4.I don’t need to worry about my homework because I did it last night.

5.I haven’t got PlayStation any more because I sold it in June.

6.Mum is angry with me because I broke the window a week ago.

c)

1.Ted was playing his guitar at half past seven.

2.At midnight, I was sleeping, but Jane was listening to music.

3.Luke was standing outside the bank when suddenly two robbers ran past him.

4.I know Doug was working late at the office because I saw him when I was leaving.

5.Were you having a shower when the earthquake happened?

6.Penny was running to catch the bus when she slipped and fell.

7.When you saw Eugene was he going home.

8.At midnight? Erm… we were watching a DVD, I think.

d)

1.When we were in Canada, we went skiing almost every day.

2.About four years ago, I decided to become a chef.

3.Georgia was having shower when someone knocked at the door.

4.Holly and I ran from the house to taxi was raining heavily.

5.Two men were arguing outside, so I went to see what was happening.

6.Daniel was calling you at one o’clock yesterday, but you were here with me.

7.We were eating breakfast when the letter came through the letterbox.

8.As I walked past the window, I saw that Paula was making a cake.

9.I was dreaming about my favourite band when the alarm clock went off.

10.While I was practicing the trumpet late last night, a neighbour came to complain.

e)

One morning, Amber wake up early. The sun was shining and the birds were singing. Amber was very excited because it was the day of the big tennis match. Amber went downstairs and into the kitchen, where her father had breakfast. «Morning Amber. Today’s  the day» he said. Amber smiled nervously. «Don’t worry» he continued. «You’ll be fine». Amber put some toast into the toaster and opened the fridge. Just as she got butter out, the phone ringed. Her father answered it. After a few minutes, he put the phone down. The other player practiced yesterday when she had an accident. The match is off. Amber ate her toast slowly. She was surprised she didn’t feel disappointed.

f)

1.When I was younger, I used to eat pizza.

2.Was there used to be a supermarket.

3.Bradley is a teacher, but he was not used to be a train driver.

4.I was not used to like eating cabbage, but now I love it.

5.Was Rick used to have blond hair when he was a little boy.

6.I know Lily was not used to cook much, but now she makes dinner every day.

 

Unit 3

a)

1.If he wins this match, he’ll be the world champion.

2.I’m thinking of joining a gym to get more exercise.

3.Our basketball trainer said that I can play on Saturday.

4.The referee blew his whistle and the game started.

5.Which team do you worship.

6.Mark’s band play traditional beat music- they often perform at country fairs and festivals.

7.I’m sorry but you need to be a member of golf club to play here.

8.My opponent was a brilliant player and I didn’t manage to win the match.

9.Tom is really good at cards. He would never cheat.

10.Lisa’s just reached number one with their new song.

b)

Do you dream of score the winning goal or beat a top tennis player? Sport interests most young people, and it’s a great way to stay healthy and have fun at the same time. That’s why the local council has decided to help young people who want to organise their own sports club. We know, it’s a big challenge, and that’s why we’ll give you some money to get started. We’ll help you find a place to train and give you a money to find a good players in your area. Contact the Town Hall for details.

c)

1.I really like playing board games like monopoly and Cluedo.

2.Roy was the best player, so he wasn’t surprised when he became captain of the team.

3.Lots of people get pleasure just watching sport from their armchairs.

4.I thought the music at the concert we went  to last night was great.

5.Everyone in my family supports the same team.

6.I find classical music really boring, so I prefer pop.

d)

1.You should take up a sport and then you’ll get more exercise.

2.I’m trying to work! Could you please turn your music down?

3.Just ask and I’m sure the other children will let you join in.

4.The referee sent David off for arguing with him.

5.This is my favourite song! Turn it up!

6.A mobile phone rang, but the musician just carried on playing.

7.We can’t afford to eat up very often.

8.I’ve decided to become a vegetarian and give off the meat.

f)

1.What’s the name of that song you were singing earlier?

2.I started to learn the piano, but I don’t think I’ve got much music talent, to be honest.

3.My dad used to be really fit and was on his college athlete team.

4.When you were young, did you ever play in the street with other local child?

5.Alan is studying to be an actor, but I don’t think he’s enjoying it.

6.They have a wonderful collection of old toys at the museum in town.

7.My grandad loves to sail, and we often go to his boat.

8.You have to practise a lot if you want to work as a musician.

Unit 4

a)

1.I have already seen this film.

2.John and Julie have had their car for about a year.

3.She has not taken her driving test yet.

4.Sue has been a tour guide since she left university.

5.Have you rode into town your new bike yet.

6.This new computer has made my life a lot easier.

7.We have not decided what to get Mark for his birthday yet.

8.Has Paul ever met a famous person?

b)

1.I’ve never played this game before.

2.Adam tidied his room last night.

3.Have you lived here since 2005?

4.Carol and I went to the cinema three nights ago.

5.It’s the first time you’ve visited our flat, isn’t it.

6.They haven’t given the baby a name yet.

7.Did you go to New York when you went to states last summer?

8.Have you ever sent an email before.

c)

1.The lesson hasn’t started yet.

2.The teacher has already written on the board.

3.Joe and Tim have just come to the classroom.

4.Tony hasn’t finished getting books ready.

5.Christine has already opened the book.

6.Dave has dropped pen on the floor.

7.He hasn’t picked it up yet.

d)

Mandy: Hi Matt. How are you? What you have been doing recently?

Matt: Oh, hi Mandy! Well, I have been studying for my exams.

Mandy: That Sounds boring! Have you been working hard?

Matt: Very! Basically, I’ve just been sitting at my desk in my bedroom for the past three weeks and I haven’t been going out at all. I have been working with Michael, my best friend, some of the time, though, so at least I’ve had some company. How about you?

Mandy:Well, my mum and I have been painting my bedroom for last few days. That has been fun! And we have been also planning our summer holiday.

Matt: Great! Where are you going?

Mandy: Well, we haven’t decided yet. We have been looking at different places to see which we like best.

Matt: I’m sure you will have a great time, wherever you go. Oh, by the way, I have been thought of having party when I finish the exams. Would you like to come?

Mandy: Sure! That would be great!

e)

1.I think I’ve heard that song before.

2.They haven’t arrived yet, but they should be here soon.

3.You’ve been writing that email for over an hour. How long is it going to take you?

4.Have you been talking on the phone since eight o’clock.

5.Jo has already invited Shirley to dinner.

6.I’ve been reading an interview with Brad Pitt, but I haven’t finished it yet.

7.Have the boys been playing computer games since this morning?

English exam topics

  1. My Native Town (Village)

My native town is Yerevan. It’s very ancient city. It’s 2798 years old. Yerevan is famous of it’s museums, statues and other beautiful things. Yerevan is called “Pink City” because of the buildings, that are built from tuff. There are many beautiful places to go. My first favorite place in Yerevan is Northern avenue. I like to go for a walk with my friends there. My next favorite place is Cascade. There are many beautiful statues in Cascade. And besides that I love an amazing view from there very much. From Cascade you can see whole beautiful Yerevan, which is awesome. Besides these I love very much Liberty square, Republic square. I like that old and new buildings are combined. So I love Yerevan very much

  1. London

London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural center. It’s one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than million people. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old and beautiful. It was founded more than two thousand years ago. Traditionally London is divided into several parts: The City, the West End, the East End and Westminster. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business center. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange. Westminster is the most important part of the capital. It’s the administrative center. The Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Government, are there. It’s a very beautiful building with two towers and a very big clock called Big Ben. Big Ben is really the bell which strikes every quarter of an hour. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey. It’s a very beautiful church built over 900 years ago. The tombs of many great statesmen, scientists and writers are there.

To the west of Westminster is West End. Here we find most of the big shops, hotels, museums, art galleries, theatres and concert halls. Piccadilly Circus is the heart of London’s West End. In the West End there are wide streets with beautiful houses and many parks, gardens and squares. To the east of Westminster is the East End, an industrial district of the capital. There are no parks or gardens in the East End and you can’t see many fine houses there. Most of the plants and factories are situated there. London has many places of interest. One of them is Buckingham Palace. It’s the residence of the Queen. The British Museum, the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library -one of the richest in the world.

All London’s long-past history is told by its streets. There are many streets in London which are known all over the” world. Among them Oxford Street, Downing Street and a lot of others can be mentioned. And tourists are usually attracted not only by the places of interest but by the streets too.

 

3.The United States of America

The United States of America is one of the greatest countries in the world.

It is situated on the North American continent and is washed by three oceans: the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Arctic.

The USA borders only on two countries — Canada and Mexico.

This great country has a lot of mountains, rivers, lakes. The main mountains are the Appalachians and     the Cordilleras. The longest rivers are the Mississippi and the Missouri.

The climate of the country is varied. In the southern part it is subtropical while the northern part has very cold weather in winter.

America has fifty states and one federal District of Columbia where the capital of the country is situated.

The capital of the USA is Washington. It stands on the Potomac river in the eastern part of the country.

The main cities are located on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. New-York is the largest city of the country. Other large cities are San-Francisco, Los-Angeles, Detroit, Chicago, Phoenix and Dallas.

The USA is a country of highly developed industry and agriculture. The main industrial centers are Chicago and Detroit, with their greatest automobile company “General Motors”. There are many farms with various agricultural products. Grain, fruit and vegetables are grown on numerous fields especially in the South.

The USA is a country with great holidays, customs and traditions. It is one of the most beautiful and interesting countries in the world.

4.Washington

Washington — the Capital of the USA

Washington, the capital of the USA, was founded in 1791. The city was named after the first president George Washington. The population of the city is nearly three million people.

The Capitol is the center of the city. It was built according to the plans of William Thornton, who was an amateur architect. It is situated on Capitol Hill.

The White House is the place where the president of the USA lives and works. This house was first occupied in 1800 by John Adams, who was the first president to live in that house. The White House has 132 rooms.

Washington has many sights, for example, the Library of Congress, the Lincoln memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and others.

The National Gallery of Arts contains art collections by the great masters of the 14th to 18th centuries. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts.

Outside the city the Arlington National Cemetery is situated. John Kennedy was buried there. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is also situated there The industry of the city is not well developed. But Washington is a large scientific and cultural center. Many research and designing institutes are concentrated here. There are five universities in the city and the National Academy of Sciences.

 

5.My Family

I live with my father, mother, grandfather, grandmother and my sister. My mother is a doctor. She works in the hospital. She likes her profession. She loves to help other people. She is 41 years old. My father is doctor too. He is 42 years old. I hardly ever see my parents because they always working. My father is also handy with many things. When he was small he liked to take everything to pieces. My grandmother told me a story that once my father tried to repair their kitchen clock but without success. Now he can fix almost everything. My parents have been married for 14 years. They have much in common, but they have different views on music, books, and films. My parents are hardworking people. My mother loves to cook. My grandfather is an engineer. My grandma didn’t work. My grandparents live with us. Grandma helps to run the house. My sister is 12 years old. She wants to become a designer. I want to become an actor. I’d like to learn foreign languages. I always try to be in good mood.

6.My Flat

We have a nice flat in a new block of flats. Our flat is on the fifth floor. We have a three-room flat which consists of a living-room, my parents’ bedroom, my room, a kitchen, a bath-room and a toilet. There are also two closets in our flat. Our flat has two balconies. The living-room is the biggest room of our flat. There we have piano, big TV set. Opposite the TV sent we have two cozy armchairs. in the middle of the room we have table with six chairs round it, we also have carpet on the floor. My room is not so big but I like it very much. I have table with chair, bed and armchair. Armchair is favorite thing in. I have little closet with all my clothes in it. I have balcony too. Their I keep all my old things. My parents room is bigger than my room. They have big bed, TV set, and closet. They love to spent their time in their bedroom. They love to watch TV shows together. Our kitchen is not so big, we have table with 3 chairs round it. we also have fridge, microwave and many other different equipment’s.

 

 

7.My Friend

I have a lot of friends. Most of them are classmates. My best friend called Maria. She is fourteen. She is my schoolmate. She lives with her parents not far from the school. She is very clever, honest and friendly. Maria has a lot of hobbies: she likes to read detective stories, to listen to music .
Maria has long, light hair and brown eyes. She is very helpful.
Maria is very popular. She is a helpful person and every time she tries to do her best to help somebody when he has problems. We spend much time together – watch video or listen to the music, walk or go to the cafe discussing all sorts of things. She usually explains me mathematics when I don’t understand something. I know that I can trust my best friend. I will do my best to be her best friend forever.

 

8.My Hobby

I love photography. Photography is a true art which is not so easy to master. In fact, it is not just an art but a whole science. I like learning new things about photography equipment, exposure, colors and lighting. I read blogs of famous photographers and try to follow their advice.

There are a lot of genres in photography. I like to take pictures of nature and people. Still nature comes alive in a photograph. People, on the contrary, become motionless only in the picture and let the photographer perpetuate the moment of their life. I love portraits. I have taken full-length and half-length portraits as well as family and group portraits.

 

9.My School

I study at High School of Yerevan “Mkhitar Sebastatsi” Educational Complex. I’m a student of grade 9. The students of our school study according to their individual curriculum’s. We can choose the school subjects, which we are interested in. I’m interested in math. So I can have more lessons on this subject. The education at our higher school is blog-based and project-based. We do our homework on our blogs. We carry out different projects. For example, I have carried out a project in History “The Great Wall of China”. The students at our high school are engaged in different activities. They can go swimming in our indoor swimming pool. The students, who are interested in music, can have musical lessons at our Musical School. The students, who are interested in fine arts, can have art lessons at our Art School. Our students can even go horse racing on our farm. Our high school is a place where students reveal their inner capabilities and creativity. We are not given texts to be learned by heart. We usually create our own texts while doing projects. Our Edu complex has its official website http://www.mskh.am, and the texts written by our students are published there. Another thing with which our school differs from other schools in Armenia is that we very often go on educational trips about Armenia.

 

10.My Day

Every day I wake up at 7 am. I gate up and go to the bathroom. I wash my hands and face, clean my teeth, then I get dressed and go to the kitchen, my grandmother makes a breakfast for me. I have breakfast at 8 am. I live home for school at 8:40 am. I arrive at school 9 am. I have a lunch at 12:35 pm. I buy something to eat in the shop outside and go with my friends to park. I stay at school till 3 pm. then I go home. When I arrive home I need to have a rest because I am very tired. I like to listen to music or read a good book, then I start doing my homework. It takes me 3 hours to prepare my lessons for the next day. Before going to bed I like to eat something. I like eat fruits and drink tea. I go to sleep deferent times. sometimes at 12 sometimes at 2.

 

11.My Favorite Book

My favorite book is harry potter. He went the Hogwarts School where they teach him different magical tricks. In fact, it’s a place where he studies wizardry. In total, there are eight books about the boy, all written by an incredibly author – Joanne K. Rowling. In most chapters he fights the evil Voldemort, who was responsible for the death of his parents. All books were pictured on the screen and I should say that the films are as interesting as books. In fact, Harry has two best friends as stated in the story. Their names are Hermione and Ron. Some people prefer reading the books, but I liked the movies more. There are many moving moments there, such as Harry’s dance with Hermione, friends’ support in hard times.

 

 

 

12.My Meals

At the weekend I like to get up late and have a good breakfast which contains scrambled eggs, salad and cup of tea. But on weekdays I am always in the hurry so I just have a glass of water and a couple of sandwiches. I have lunch at school so I prefer to eat yogurt and drink orange juice. I enjoy my evening meal at home. My mother is a wonderful cook and her dinners are always delicious. we usually have some salad with tomatoes and cucumbers, some sup or steak with spaghetti. I love pizza too, but my mother says that it is not good for health.

13.Travelling

There is nothing quite like traveling, like seeing a new place for the first time or returning to a favorite place. People of all ages, from all countries, travel to foreign places for many different reasons – namely work, family and leisure. There are various means of travelling, travel is generally a pleasurable experience. For me there is nothing like travel by air; it is more comfortable, more convenient and, of course, far quicker than any other means. With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. From the comfortable seat of a railway carriage you have a beautiful view of the whole countryside. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in the dining-car; and if a journey is a long one you can have a wonderful bed in a sleeper.

Travelling by ship is also very popular now. It is very pleasant to feel the deck of the ship under the feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves, to feel the fresh sea wind blowing in the face and hear the cry of the seagulls.

Many people like to travel by car. It is interesting too, because you can see many sights in a short time, you can stop when and where you like, you do not have to buy tickets or carry your suitcases.

14.Shopping

Nowadays shopping as a way of spending time has become quite a popular thing. However, the meaning of this word does not simply imply browsing around the shops. It also means other things such as having a meal in a cafe or a restaurant.

There are plenty of different shops such as food supermarkets, bakeries, furniture stores, department stores, clothing stores and many others.

More and more shopping centers and malls are opening in big and small cities. Under one roof you can find various shops and buy everything you need.

Thanks to the development of the Internet, some people prefer to shop online.

Sometimes shopping can be a part of travel experience. A lot of people go abroad not to just relax in the sun and do sightseeing but also wander around local shops.

Europe is renowned for its designer boutiques and massive sales. However, it is possible to buy fashion clothes of high quality in other countries too.

 

15.Seasons and Weather

Everyone knows that there are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Each of them lasts 3 months.

Spring comes in March and ends in May. It often rains in spring, especially in April.

Summer is the hottest season in the year. It begins in June and ends in August. In summer the sky is clear and cloudless. The days are long and the nights are short and warm. Summer brings fruits and vegetables. It is pleasant to spend this season by the seaside or somewhere in the country.

Autumn months are September, October and November. The days are becoming shorter, the sun loses its force. It often rains. It is the season of harvesting.

Winter lasts three month as well: December, January and February. It is getting colder day by day. The sun shines rarely and it snows of fen. But everything looks so pretty covered with snow.

So in every season there are bright and dark sides. But we must be thankful together whatever the weather.

 

 

Օպտիկա

Օպտիկա, ֆիզիկայի բաժին է, որն ուսումնասիրում է լույսի բնույթը, առաքման և կլանման օրենքները, տարածումը տարբեր միջավայրերում, ինչպես նաև նյութի հետ լույսի փոխազդեցության ժամանակ առաջացող երևույթները։

Սկզբնական շրջանում օպտիկան սահմանափակվում էր էլէկտրամագնիսական ալիքների սպեկտորի տեսանելի մասով։ Ժամանակակից օպտիկան ուսումնասիրում է էլեկտրամագնիսական ալիքների սպեկտորի ինչպես տեսանելի, այնպես էլ նրան հարող ուլտրամանուշակագույն և ինֆրակարմիր տիրույթները։ Օպտիկական երևույթների մի մեծ խումբ կարելի է քննարկել առանց լույսի ալիքային բնույթը հաշվի առնելու, ընդունելով, որ լուսային էներգիան փոխանցվում է ճառագայթի երկայնքով։ Այս պատկերացումը և լույսի անդրադարձման ու բեկման օրենքները միասին կազմում են երկրաչափական օպտիկայի հիմքը։

Օպտիկայի կարևորագույն բաժիններից է սպեկտրոսկոպիան, որն զբաղվում է ինչպես ատոմների և մոլեկուլների կլանման ու ճառագայթման, այպես էլ կոմբինացիոն ցրման սպեկտրների ուսումնասիրությամբ։ Օպտիկական չափումները, ուսումնասիրման մեթոդները և գործիքները լայն կիրառություն ունեն կյանքի ամենատարբեր ոլորտներում, թե գիտական և թե գործնական խնդիրների լուծման համար։ Լույսի արագության որոշման փորձերը վակուումում և տարբեր միջավայրերում էական նշանակություն են ունեցել հարաբերականության հատուկ տեսոջթյան զարգացման համար։

 

Օպտիկայի զարգացման հենց սկզբնական շրջանում փորձով հաստատված են եղել օպտիկական երևույթների հետևյալ չորս հիմնական օրենքները՝

  1. Լույսի ուղղագիծ տարածման օրենքը։
  2. Լուսային փնջերի անկախության օրենքը։
  3. Հայելային մակերևույթից լույսի անդրադարձման օրենքը։
  4. Երկու թափանցիկ միջավայրերի սահմանում լույսի բեկման օրենքը։

Այս օրենքների հետագա ուսումնասիրությունը ցույց տվեց, նախ, որ դրանք շատ ավելի խոր բնույթ ունեն, քան կարող է թվալ առաջին հայացքից, և, երկրորդ, որ այդ օրենքների կիրառությունը սահմանափակ է, և որ դրանք միայն մոտավոր օրենքներ են։ Հիմնական օպտիկական օրենքների կիրառելիության պայմանների և սահմանների սահմանումը նշանակում էր կարևոր առաջադիմություն լույսի բնույթի ուսումնասիրության մեջ։ Այդ օրենքների էությունը հանգում է հետևյալին։

Լույսի ուղղագիծ տարածման օրենքը

Համասեռ միջավայրում լույսը տարածվում է ուղիղ գծերով։ Այս օրենքը հանդիպում է Էվկլիդեսին վերագրվող մի երկում (300 տարի մեր թվարկությունից առաջ) և, հավանական է, որ այն հայտնի էր և կիրառվում էր շատ ավելի առաջ։ Այս օրենքի փորձնական ապացույց են կարող ծառայել կետային աղբյուրներով ստացվող կտրուկ ստվերների կամ փոքր անցքերի միջոցով ստացվող պատկերների դիտումները։ Մարմնի ուրվագծի և նրա ստվերի հարաբերությունը, երբ մարմինը լուսավորվում է լույսի կետային աղբյուրով (այսինքն՝ այնպիսի աղբյուրով, որի չափերը շատ փոքր են նրա մինչև առարկան ունեցած հեռավորության համեմատությամբ) համապատասխանում է ուղիղ գծերով կատարվող երկրաչափական պրոյեկտմանը։

Լույսի ուղղագիծ տարածման օրենքը կարելի է համարել փորձով հաստատուն սահմանված։ Նա ունի շատ խոր իմաստ, որովհետև, ըստ երևույթին, ուղիղ գծի հասկացությունը ծագել է օպտիկական դիտումներից։ Ուղիղ գծի երկրաչափական հասկացությունը որպես ամենակարճ հեռավորությունը երկու կետերի միջև, հասկացություն է այն գծի մասին, որով լույսը տարածվում է համասեռ միջավայրում։ Սրանից է առաջացել անհիշելի ժամանակներից օգտագործվող լեկալի կամ շինվածքի ուղղագիծ լինելու ստուգումը տեսողության ճառագայթի միջոցով։ Նկարագրված երևույթի ավելի մանրազնին ուսումնասիրությունը ցույց է տալիս, որ ուղղագիծ տարածվելու օրենքը իր ուժը կորցնում է, երբ գործ ունենք շատ փոքր անցքերի հետ։

Լուսային փնջերի անկախության օրենքը

Լուսային հոսքը կարելի է բաժանել առանձին լուսային փնջերի, անջատելով դրնաք իրարից, օրինակ, դիաֆրագմայի միջոցով։ Այդ առանձնացված լուսային փնջերի գործողություններն անկախ են, այսինքն առանձին փնջով կատարված էֆեկտը կախում չունի նրանից՝ ազդում են արդյոք միաժամանակ մյուս փնջերը, թե ոչ։ Այսպես, օրինակ, եթե լուսանկարչական ապարատի օբյեկտիվի մեջ մի լայնատարած լանդշաֆտից ճառագայթներ են ընկնում, ապա փակելով լուսային փնջերի մի մասի մուտքը մենք չենք փոխի մյուս փնջերով տրված պատկերը։

Լույսի անդրադարձման օրենքը

Ընկնող ճառագայթը, անդրադարձնող մակերևույթի նորմալը և անդրադարձած ճառագայթը մի հարթությունում են գտնվում ընդ որում ճառագայթենրով և նորմալով կազմված անկյունները իրար հավասար են՝ i անկման անկյունը հավասար է r անդրադարձման անկյանը։

Այս օրենքը նույնպես հիշատակվում է Էվկլիդեսի «Օպտիկա»-ում։ Այս օրենքի սահմանումը կապված է ողորկ մետաղական մակերևույթների (հայելիների) օգտագործման հետ, որը հայտնի էր հնագույն ժամանակներում։

Լույսի բեկման օրենքը

Ընկնող ճառագայթը և բեկված ճառագայթը բաժանման սահմանի նորմալի հետ գտնվում են միևնույն հարթության վրա։ Անկման i անկյունը և բեկման r անկյունը կապված են, առնչությամբ, որտեղ n-ը անկյունների մեծություններից անկախ մի հաստատուն է։ n մեծությունը՝ բեկման ցուցիչը, որոշվում է այն երկու միջավայրերի հատկություններով, որոնց բաժանման սահմանով անցնում է լույսը և կախում ունի նաև ճառագայթը գույնից։

Լույսի բեկման երևույթը հայտնի էր դեռևս Արիստոտելին (մ.թ.ա. 350)։ Օրենքի քանակապես հաստատման փորձը պատկանում է հռչակավոր աստղաբաշխ Պտղոմեոսին (մ.թ.ա. 120), որը ձեռնարկել էր անկման և բեկման անկյունների չափելը։ Նրա բերած չափումների տվյալները շատ ճշգրիտ են։ Պտղոմեոսը հաշվի էր առնում երկրի մթնոլորտում տեղի ունեցող բեկման ազդեցությունը լուսատուների տեսանելի դիրքի վրա (մթնոլորտային ռեֆրակցիա), և նույնիսկ կազմել էր ռեֆրակցիայի աղյուսակները։

Սակայն Պտղոմեոսի չափումները վերաբերում էին համեմատաբար փոքր անկյուններին։ Այդ պատճառով Պտղոմեոսը հանգեց այն սխալ եզրակացության, որ բեկման անկյունը համեմատական է անկման անկյանը։ Շատ ավելի ուշ (մոտ 1000 թ.) արաբական լուսագետ Ալհազենը (Ալհայթամ) հայտնաբերեց, որ անկման և բեկման անկյունների հարաբերությունը հաստատուն չի մնում, սակայն նա օրենքի ճիշտ արտահայտությունը տալ չկարողացավ։ Բեկման օրենքի ճիշտ ձևակերպումը պատկանում է Սնելիին (1591-1626 թթ.), որը իր չհրապարակված գրքում ցույց տվեց, որ անկման և բեկման անկյունների կոսեկանսնների հարաբերությունը մնում է հաստատուն, և Դեկարտին, որը իր «Դիօպտիկայում» (1637) տվեց բեկման օրենքի ժամանակակից ձևակերպումը։ Իր օրենքը Դեկարտը սահմանեց մոտ 1630 թվականին։

Անդրադարձման և բեկման օրենքները նույնպես ճիշտ են միայն որոշ պայմաններ պահպանելու դեպքում։ Այն դեպքում, երբ անդրադարձնող հայելու կամ երկու միջավայրերը իրարից բաժանող մակերևույթի չափերը փոքր են, զգալի շեղումներ են դիտվում նշված օրենքներից։

Սակայն մի լայնատարած բնագավառի երևույթների համար, որոնք դիտվում են սովորական օպտիկական գործիքներում, բոլոր թվարկված օրենքները պահպանվում են բավականաչափ խիստ ձևով։ Ուստի օպտիկայի գործնականում չափազանց կարևոր բաժնում՝ օպտիկական գործիքների մասին ուսմունքում, այդ օրենքները կարող են համարվել լրիվ կիրառելի։ Լույսի մասին ուսմունքի ամբողջ առաջին էտապը կայացել էր այս օրենքների հաստատմանը վերաբերող հետազոտությունների և օրենքների կիրառությունների մեջ, այսինքն՝ դնում էր երկրաչափական կամ ճառագայթային օպտիկայի հիմքը։

Եթե անկման անկյունը նշանակենք α-ով, իսկ բեկման անկյունը նշանակենք β-ով, ապա համաձայն բեկման օրենքի. sinα/sinβ=n2/n1 n1 (n2) մեծությունը կոչվում է առաջին (երկրորդ) միջավայրի բեկման ցուցիչ:800px-Light_dispersion_of_a_mercury-vapor_lamp_with_a_flint_glass_prism_IPNr°0125